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Types of Disabling Conditions Served
 

  • AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS -- a developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.  A child may be found eligible for special education and related services as a child with autism if there is an adverse effect on the child's educational performance due to documented characteristics of autism and the child has any of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders, also referenced as autism spectrum disorder, such as Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Rhett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified including Atypical Autism
  • DEAFNESS --  a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects the child’s educational performance.
  • DEAF BLIND -- hearing and visual impairments occurring at the same time, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
  • DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY -- a disability affecting a child ages two by September 30 through six, inclusive:
    1. (i) Who is experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development, or (ii) who has an established physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay;
    2. The delay(s) is not primarily a result of cultural factors, environmental or economic disadvantage, or limited English proficiency; and
    3. The presence of one or more documented characteristics of the delay has an adverse affect on educational performance and makes it necessary for the student to have specially designed instruction to access and make progress in the general educational activities for this age group.
       
  • HEARING IMPAIRMENT -- an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness.
  • INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY -- significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, which adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  • MULTIPLE DISABILITIES -- simultaneous impairments (Such as intellectual disability with blindness, intellectual disability with orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments (this terms does not include deaf-blindness), that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  • ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT -- a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
  • OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENT -- having limited strength, vitality or alertness. This includes a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment and which adversely affects a child's educational performance. Chronic or acute health problems that fall under "other health impairment" include:
    • Asthma
    • Hemophilia
    • Lead poisoning
    • Leukemia
    • Nephritis
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Tourette syndrome
    • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Diabetes
    • Epilepsy
    • Heart condition
  • EMOTIONAL DISABILITY -- a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects educational performance:
    • An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
    • An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;
    • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
    • A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
    • A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

The term includes children who are schizophrenic, but does not include children who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined that they are emotionally disturbed.

  • SEVERELY AND PROFOUNDLY DISABLED -- having primary disabilities that severely impair cognitive abilities, adaptive skills, or life functioning; may have associated severe behavior problems; may have the high probability of additional physical and/or sensory disabilities; and does require significantly more education resources than are provided for children with mild and moderate disabilities in special education programs.
  • SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABLED -- a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.
  • SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT -- a disorder that can impact the way a student communicates.  Speech errors include errors when producing specific sounds that are not a result of normal development or language acquisition, dysfluency (stuttering), or motor speech issues.  Students may also receive therapy for improving the understanding and use of spoken or written language, pragmatics, and meta-linguistic skills.  Students with swallowing disorders or dysphagia can also receive services from speech-language pathologists in Virginia public schools.
  • TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY --  an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychological impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  • VISUAL IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDNESS -- an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.  The term includes both partial sight and blindness.